MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH  AT UNIT LEVEL

 

This Chapter, as is evident, deals with the management of occupational safety and health at the unit level, i.e. manufacturing units. The state has a total of 28324 working factories in the year 2001, the break-up of which according to factories registered under Section 2(m), Section 85 of the Factories Act, 1948 is given in Chapter-4. In order to have a fair idea, about the safety and health status in these units, the following aspects on safety and health have been converted under this Chapter:

 

7.1             Safety Policy

7.2             Appointment of Safety Officers

7.3             Safety Committee

7.4             Occupational health centers (FMO, Ambulance)

7.5             Welfare (WO, Canteen, Creche, Lunch Room, Shelter, etc.)

7.6             On-site Emergency Plans

7.7             Safety Reports

7.8             Safety Audits

7.9             HAZOP Studies

7.10         Dangerous Occurrences

 

There are certain statutory requirements as provided under the Factories Act, 1948 and Rules framed there under, for each of the aspect stated above. Items 7.6 to 7.9 are additional requirement exclusively applicable to MAR installations, which are covered by separate set of rules. Each of aspect with its status has been discussed in the following paragraphs.

 

7.1             SAFETY POLICY

 

The Rule 73(L) of the Maharashtra Factory Rules, 1963, framed under the provisions of Sections 7 A(3), 41-B(2) and 112 requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by every factory except

 

a)                 Units covered under Section 2(m)(i) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing less than 50 workers.

b)                 Units covered under Section 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948

c)                  Provided that they are not covered in the first schedule under section 2( cb ) or covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948.

d)                 Units covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948.

 

In addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories or class or description of factories to comply with the above requirements of Safety Policy if in his opinion it is expedient to do so.

 

As per the details available 1902 units were required preparation of Safety Policy. However, only 1360 units have prepared the Safety Policy, which is about 71.6% of the total requirement.

 


7.2             APPOINTMENT OF SAFETY OFFICERS

 

As per the provisions of Section 40-B of the Factories Act, 1948, Safety Officer is required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria:

 

7.2.1   a)         Units employing more than 1000 workers,

 

b)                 Wherein in the opinion of the State Government, any manufacturing process or operation is carried on involving any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or diseases or any hazard to health.

 

As per the details available, 564 Safety Officers were required to be appointed in 394 factories in the State. As against this, 530 Safety Officers were appointed in various units.

 

 

Description of factories

No. of factories as per Col. 1

 

No. of Safety Officers required to be appointed

No. of Safety Officers appointed

Factories employing 1000 or more workers and notified under section 40-B(1)(i)

 

133

303

 

269

Factories notified under section 40-B(1 )(ii)

261

261

261

 

 

7.3             SAFETY COMMITTEE

 

The Rule 73(J) of the Maharashtra Factory Rules, 1963 framed under the provisions of Section 41 and 41-G of the Factories Act, 1948 requires constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:

 

a)                 Units employing 250 or more workers.

b)                 Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.

c)                  Units covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.

 

As per the information available, 1349 units have constituted Safety Committees out of 1902 units, which is about 70.4%.

 

7.4             OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH CENTERS

 

As per Rule 73(W) of the Maharashtra Factory Rules, 1963 prescribed under Section 41-C of the Factories Act, 1948, Occupational Health Centers are required to be set up in the factories carrying on 'hazardous process' as described under Section 2(cb) of the Act. The industries have been divided into 3 categories, i.e. the industries employing up to 50 workers, employing 51 - 200 workers and employing more than 200 workers. 327 MAR units have provided 183 Full time Factory Medical Officers and 144 Part-time Factory Medical Officers. They have 249 ambulances and provided 175 ambulance rooms. Other than MAH, 412 other units have provided 273 full time and 38 part time Factory Medical Officers and 412 ambulance vans with 412 ambulance rooms, respectively.

 

Table showing number of MAH factories, appointment of Medical Officer, Ambulance Van and Occupational Health Centre.

 

Detail

Year

2000

2001

No. of MAH Factories

327

327

No. of Medical Officers appointed on Full Time/ Part

Time/Retainer Basis

275

275

No. of Ambulance Van or other vehicle provided

250

249

No. of Occupational Health Centre provided

175

210

 

Table showing Factories employing workers above 500, appointment of Factory Medical Officer on Full time / Part time and on Retainer basis and number of Ambulance Room (Dispensary) provided.

 

Detail

Year

2000

2001

No. of Factories employing more than 500 workers

411

412

No. of Medical Officers Full Time

273

274

No. of Medical Officers Part Time

138

138

No. of Ambulance van or other vehicle

411

412

No. of Occupational Health Centre

411

412

 

7.5             WELFARE

 

This part of the Chapter deals with the Welfare facilities, e.g. appointment of Welfare Officers, creche facilities, canteen facilities, shelters, rest room and lunch room.

 

As per the provisions of Section 49 of the Factories Act, 1948, any factory employing more than 500 workers, is required to employ a Welfare Officer. Table below gives the details of Welfare Officers appointed in the factories.

 

a

Number of factories required to appoint Welfare Officers

factories.

280

b

Number of factories in which Welfare Officers mentioned in (a) above are appointed

466

c

Number of Welfare Officers required to be appointed in factories employing ordinarily 500 or more workers

334

d

Number of Welfare Officers so appointed

453

 

 

As per the provisions under Section 48 of the Factories Act, 1948, any factory employing 30 or more women workers are required to provide creche facilities for the use of children below the age of 6 years for the women employees. There are certain requirements under the Section for these creches which are to be met by the occupier of the factory. In total 406 units are required to provide creche facility and out of these 187 units have provided the creche facilities.

 

As per the provisions under Section 47 of the Factories Act, 1948, any factory employing more than 150 workers is required to provide adequate and suitable shelters or rest rooms and lunch-rooms for the use of the workers employed.

 

As per the details available 933 factories are required to provide the shelters, rest rooms and lunch-room facilities. However, 3541 factories have provided this facility, which is much more than the statutory provision.

 

As per the provisions under Section 46 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 250 workers is required to provide canteen facilities for the use of workers.

 

As per the details available, out of 1220 units, 637 occupiers of factories and 583 contractors have provided canteen facilities.

 

7.6             ON-SITE EMERGENCY PLANS

 

As per the provision under "The Maharashtra Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard Rules, 2003", an occupier who has control of the industrial activity, as described under the Rule, shall prepare an On-site emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on the site on which industrial activity is carried on.

 

As per the information available 327 number of MAH installations were required to prepare the on-site emergency plan. 255 MAH installations have prepared the plans and submitted to the Director of Industrial Safety and Health.

 

7.7&7.8 SAFETY REPORTS AND SAFETY AUDITS

 

As per the provisions under "The Maharashtra Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard Rules, 2003", it is mandatory for an occupier to prepare and submit to the Chief Inspector before the commencement of an industrial activity, the Safety Report of the industrial activity to which these rules apply. The Safety Report is to be submitted in the prescribed format. Further it is advisable that all the units after the commencement of the industrial activity shall carry out an independent Safety Audit of the respective industrial activities with the help of an expert not associated with such industrial activities. This will help the management to know the weak points in their system and to take suitable timely remedial measures.

 

No information was available from DISH about how many units were required to prepare and actually prepared and submitted to enforcing authority.

 

7.9             HAZOP STUDIES

 

The HAZOP Studies, i.e. the Hazard and Operability studies are carried out in advance on any plant to examine the process or at least the relevant parts of the process to discover how deviation from the intention of design can occur to decide whether such deviations can give rise to hazardous conditions.

 

The technique aims to simulate the imagination of designer in a systematic way and is useful in identifying potential hazards in advance and allow the user to take corrective measures.

 

However, no information is available about the units which have conducted risk assessment studies.

 

7.10         DANGEROUS OCCURRENCES

 

As per provision of Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948, and Rule 114 of the Maharashtra Factory Rules, 1963, dangerous occurrences are reportable accidents and should be reported on Form 24-A to the concerned authority. The table below reflects the details:

 

Sl.

No.

Factory

Circumstances Causing Dangerous Occurrence

1

National Highway Trucking Centre, Chembur, Mumbai

Due to CNG filling, there was damage to the deky of the taxi.

2

Mamta Trading Co., Ghatkopar, Mumbai

 Due to bursting of the boilers.

3

Aarti Drugs Ltd., MIDC, Tarapur

Fire caught due to inflammable solvent.

4

Sterling Aralaries Pvt. Ltd., Tarapur

During the process ethelene oxide which is inflammable, fire broke out

5

Rajni Chemicals Industries, Tarapur

The reactor busted due to increase in Temperature and pressure of acrohly  nitrathe

6

Pratap Organics, Pavane, Thane

Fire caught due to inflammable solvent.

7

Chemosol Industries Pvt. Ltd., MIDC, Mahad

-do-

8

Chemosol Industries Pvt. Ltd., MIDC, Mahad

-do-

9

Ordnance Factory, Jalgaon, Nashik

Explosion

10

'C' Cure Building Products Pvt. Ltd., Pune

Due to opening auto dare the boiler exploded

11

Prerana Pharma Intermediate,

Ambernath

Fire caught due to inflammable solvent

12

Bhagwati S.S.K. Ltd., Solapur

While changing the tyre tube, there was pressure and it bursted

13

Shree Pulshkar Petro Products Ltd.,

Fire caught due to inflammable solvent

14

S.B. Reshellers Pvt. Ltd., Kolhapur

Due to pressure there was an explosion