MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT STATE LEVEL

 

Management of safety and health at the state level is more complex than at the unit level.At unit level the problems are relatively simple and unit specific depending upon the type of industry.However at the state level the management of safety and health is not unit or industry specific and the instruments such as policies, legislation, etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues in all type of occupations.Apart from The Factories Act, 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities.These legislations are enforced by various state/ Central government agencies such as Directorate of Industrial Health and Safety/, Labour commissioner of the State and Chief Labour Commissioner Central, etc. 

  Education and training plays an important role in management of safety and health at state level and thus cannot be neglected. Non-government organizations (NGOs), voluntary organizationís, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health are contributing in their own way towards the objective for giving the workers a safe and healthy work environment. 

 

 Safety and health at work is governed by variety of statutes in the state depending on the nature of work place, manufacturing activity and specific aspects of safety and health.Some of the important statutes are given below:

 

  1. The Factories Act, 1948 ( Amended 1987 )

2. The M P Factories Rules, 1962

3. Dangerous machines (Regulations) Act

4. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulations) Act

5. Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules 1989

6. M P Factories (Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards) Rules 1996.

7. Building and other construction workersAct 1996

8. Indian Electricity Act 1911

9. Indian Electricity Rules 1956

10. Indian Explosives Act

11. The Petroleum Act

12. Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels Rules

  There are different departments of Central Government and State Government entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes.The efforts of the enforcement agencies arealso supplemented by other organizationís such as training andresearch institutions,employers associations, employees associations,etc. in promoting occupational safety and health in the state.

 7.1       Labour Commissioner Organization : 

  Theorganizationfunctions under the DepartmentofLabour, Government of Madhya Pradesh headed by Secretary (labour). supported by Special Secretaries, JointSecretary,DeputySecretaryandUnderSecretary at the Government level. The enforcement of labour laws are being enforced through Labour Commissioner Organisation M.P headed by Labour Commissioner. The labour commissioner office has two types of enforcement machinery i.e. (i) social securities through Deputy/Assistant Labour Commissioner & Labour Enforcement Officers. (ii) Occupational Health and Safety through Directorate Industrial Health and Safety. Some of the Labour Laws administered by the Labour Commissioner Organisation are given below:

 

Srl No

Name of Act /Rule

Purpose

Enforced by Central Govt.

Enforced by State Govt.

Enforced by Central & State Govt.

1

The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947

An act-to make provision for the investigation and settlement of industrial disputes and for certain other purposes.

-

-

 

÷

2

The Madhya Pradesh Industrial Relation Act, 1960

An act-to provide power to prevent strikes and lock-out, to settle industrial disputes and for other incidental maters.

-

÷

-

3

The Trade Union Act, 1926

An act-to provide for the registration of Trade Unions and in certain respects to define the law relating to registered rade Unions.

-

÷

-

4

The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946

An act-to require employers in industrial establishment formally to define conditions of employment under them.

÷

-

-

5

The M P Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1961

An act-to require employers in industrial establishment formally to define conditions of employment under them.

-

÷

-

6

The Payment of Wages Act, 1936

An act-to regulate the payment of wages to certain classes of employed persons.

-

-

÷

7

The Minimum Wages Act, 1948

An act-to provide fixing minimum rates of wages in certain employments.

-

-

÷

8

The Payment of Bonus Act, 1965

An act-to provide the payment of bonus to persons employed in certain establishments on the basis of profits or on the basis of production or productivity and for matters connected therewith.

-

-

÷

9

The Factories Act, 1948

An act-to consolidate and amend the law regulatinglabour and providing for the health, safety, welfare and other aspects of labours in factories.

-

÷

-

10

The Envionvirontal Protection Act

An act-to protect the Environment and make different rules for the purpose.

-

-

÷

11 .

The Dangerous Machines (Regulations) 1983

An act-to take care for the safety of agricultural machines used by the farmers.

-

÷

-

12.

The Madhya Pradesh Dookan Aur Vanijya Adhisthan Adhiniyam Act, 1958

An act-to consolidates and amends the law relating to the regulation of conditions of work and employment in shops and commercial establishments.

-

÷

-

13

The Beedi and Cigar workers (Conditions of Employment Act, 1966)

An act-to provide for the welfare of the workers in Beedi and Cigar establishments and to regulate the conditions of their work and for matters connected therewith.

-

÷

-

14.

The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970

An act-to regulate the employment of contract labour in certain establishments and to provide for its abolition in certain circumstances and for matters connected therewith.

-

-

÷

15.

The Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961

An act-to provide for the welfare of motor transport workers and to regulate the conditions of their work.

-

÷

-

16

The Inter-state Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and condition of Service) Act, 1979

An act-to regulate the employment of interstate migrant workmen and to provide for their condition of service for matters connected therewith.

 

-

-

÷

17.

The Sales Promotion Employees (Condition of Service) Act, 1976

An act-to regulate certain conditions of service of sales promotion employees in certain establishments.

-

-

÷

18

The Working Journalists and other Newspapers Employees (Conditions of Service and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1955

An act-to regulate certain conditions of service of working journalists and other employed in newspapers establishments.

-

-

÷

19

The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961

An act-to regulate employment of workmen in certain establishments for certain periods before and after child-birth and no provide for maternity benefit and certain other benefits.

-

-

÷

20

The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976

An act-to provide for the payment of equal remuneration of men & women workers and for the prevention of discrimination on the ground of Sex against-women in the matter of employment and for matter of employment and for matter connected therewith or incidental thereto.

-

-

÷

21

The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976

An act-to provide for the abolition of bonded labour system with a view to preventing the economic and physical exploitation of the weaker sections of the people and for matters connected therewith or incidental there-to.

-

÷

-

22

The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986

An act-to prohibits the engagement of children in certain employments and to regulate the condition of work of children in certain other employments.

-

-

÷

23

The workmenís Compensation Act, 1923

An act-to provide for the fixation of rates of wages in respect of working journalists and for matters connected therewith.

-

-

÷

24

Employees State Insurance Act 1948.

An act-to provides medical attendance to the people working in industry and other establishment and their family members.

-

-

÷

25

Employees provident fund Act 1952

An act-to provides financial assistance to the employees at the time of their need and at the time of their retirement.

÷

-

-

26

The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972

An act-to provide for a scheme for the payment of gratuity to employees engaged in factories, mines, oil fields, plantation, ports, railways, companies, shops or other establishments and for maters connected there with or incidental there to.

-

-

÷

27

The Labour Laws Exemption from Furnishing Return and Maintaining Registers by certain Establishments) Act, 1988

An act-to provide for the exemption of employers in relation to establishments employing a small number of persons from furnishing returns and maintaining registers under certain labour laws.

 

-

-

÷

 

28

Cine workers and Cinema workers (Regulation of Employment)Act 1981

An act-to regulate the employment of Cine workers and Cinema workers and to provide for their condition of service for matters connected therewith

÷

-

-

29

 

 

 

 

Beedi workers Welfare fund Act 1976

 

An act-to look after the welfare of Beedi workers by providing financial assistance to the workers in case of need.

 

÷

-

-

31

The Building and other construction workers (Employment and service conditions) Act 1996

An act to look after the safety, health & welfare of the construction workers.

-

-

÷

32

The M P Building and other construction workers (Employment and service conditions) Rule 1996

Rules made under the provisions of theBuilding and Other Construction Workers (Employment and Service Conditions) Act 1996

-

-

÷

33

The Child (Bonded Labour) Act 1933

An act-to prohibits the engagement of children as bonded labour.

-

÷

-

34

 

 

 

Iron Ore, Manganese Ore and Chrome Ore Mines workers Welfare Fund 1976

 

An act-to look after the welfare of Iron Ore, Manganese Ore and Chrome Ore Mines workers by providing financial assistance to the workers in case of need.

 

÷

-

-

35

 

 

 

Madhya Pradesh Slate Pencil Workers Welfare Fund Act 1982.

An act-to look after the welfare of Slate Pencil workers by providing financial assistance to the workers and their families in case of need

-

÷

-

36

Madhya Pradesh Labour welfare Fund Act 1982

An act-to look after the welfare ofthe workers by providing financial assistance to the workers in case of need.

-

÷

-

 

7.2 OFFICE OF THE LABOUR COMMISSIONER

 

This is most important department to protect the interest of workers for matters related to other than safety and health. The main objective of the department is to

 

1.      Look after the welfare of the workers

 

2.     To see that the facilities as per various statutes are made available to the workers

 

3.     To look after the labour disputes and industrial relations

 

4.     Registration of trade unions

 

5.    To see functioning of various committees formed for the workers engaged in different occupations

  

6.    To see the functioning of the Welfare boards

 

7.    To carry out inspections, prosecutions and convictions for the violation of the provisions of various Acts enforced by the Labour Commissioner

 

8.    To implement pension schemes for workers working in different occupations

 

9.    To implement group insurance scheme

 

 7.2.1 Organization structure:

 

The department is headed by the Labour Commissioner supported by Additional Labour commissioners, Joint Labour commissioner. Director of Industrial Health and Safety. The Labour Commissioner is also assisted by Dy,.Labour commissioner and other associated officers. LikeAsstt. Labour Commissioners, Labour Enforcement officers. Similarly Director Industrial Health and Safety assited by Joint Directors. Dy Directors. AndAssistant Directors.

 

 7.2.2 Activities:

 

The major activity of this department is to see the welfare of the labour working in all the occupations in the state of Madhya Pradesh.

 

  ††††††††The enforcement of the above Act aims to make available all the benefits to the workers engaged in different occupations and maintain the environment of peace and harmony in the organized and unorganised sectors.

 

7.2.3†† Offices and Areas covered :

 

The Labour commissioner office is having 36 regional offices headed by Additional/Deputy/Assistant labour commissioner.

 

7.2.4Inspections and prosecutions

The department enforces all the labour relatedActs and rules made there under for the welfare of workers engaged in various occupations.The details of the inspections made under each Act and number of prosecutions for violation of various provisions of the Act forthe last four years are given below in Table-27.


Table-27

Inspections and Prosecutions Launched

Sr No.

Act

2001-2002

2002-2003

(Upto Decí02)

Inspection

Prosecutions

Inspection

Prosecutions

1

The M P . Dookan Aur Vanijya Adhisthan Adhiniyam Act, 1962

18735

6638

19417

4921

2

The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961

1514

117

843

62

3

The Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961

3615

1248

2966

1129

4

The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970

1579

327

1190

294

5

The Payment of Bonus Act, 1965

1707

61

767

7

6

The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976

2905

245

2291

228

7

The Inter-state Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and condition of Service) Act, 1979

72

11

61

11

8

The Factories Act, 1948

4369

260

3791

271

9

The Beedi and Cigar Workers (Condition of Employment Act,1966

1756

169

1228

130

10

The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation)Act,1986

3392

51

2551

29

7.3DIRECTORATE OF INDUDSTRIAL HEALTH AND SAFETY,

 

The Directorate Of Industrial Health And Safety, under the Department of†† Labour†† Madhya Pradesh and is looking after safety, health andwelfare of workers employed infactories registered under Factories Act. Labour Commissioner, Madhya Pradesh heads the department of Labour in the state of Madhya Pradesh.The Directorate Of Industrial Health And Safety is looking after the enforcement of Factories Act 1948 only and Rules framed there under.The inspectors enforcing The Factories Act, 1948, 1948 and Madhya Pradesh. Factories Rule 1962 are with engineering background in Electrical, Mechanical or Chemical engineering.

In the State of Madhya Pradesh 12104 factories were registered as on 2003(Dec) employing about 674819 workers. To secure the compliance of the provisions of Factories Act, 1948, relating to industrial safety & health and other welfare measures, the Director Of Industrial Health And Safety, 03 Joint Director of Industrial Health And Safety and 10 Deputy Director of Industrial Health And Safety along with 28 posts of Assistant. Director of Industrial Health And Safety, which includes a post Assistant Director (Medical) are sanctioned in the Industrial Health and Safety, Madhya Pradesh.

 

At present there are only 21 Asstt. Directors of Factories (Factory Inspectors) in position to take up the entire load of inspection of registered factories in the state of MadhyaPradesh.

There are some other Specific laws (listed below) relating to management of hazardous chemical substances are also being enforced byDirectorate Of Industrial Health and Safety in identified MAH installations.

®                  The M.P.Factories (Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards) Rules, 1996; (under The Factories Act, 1948 (Amended 1987).

®                  The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 (Amended - 2000); {under the Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986}; and

®                  The Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996.

These legislations determine the concern and set priority for a comprehensive approach in ensuring safety in work environment and thereby preventing accidents.The Directorate Of Industrial Health and Safety, Madhya pradesh are in line of action to adopt Management of hazardous substances be a comprehensive system in the industrial enterprise and thus ensuring effective accident prevention in the state.

 

7.3.1. Offices and Areas covered

  The Directorate Of Factories of the state of Madhya Pradesh is divided into 3 divisions. The Division offices are located at Indore, Bhopal, JabalpurEach divisional office is under the chargeof†† Joint Director of Industrial Health and Safety and is assisted by Dy. Directors and Assistant Directors. fortheenforcementofstatutes.

In addition to the above, the Directorate has a posts of Assistant .Director (Medical) along with one state level Industrial Hygiene Laboratory at Head Quarter.

 

7.3.2.     Strength of the Directorate : 

 The DirectorateOf Industrial Health and safety is equipped with trained and experienced personnel .The present details are as givenbelow :

 

Director, Industrial Health and Safety†††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 01

Joint Deputy Director Industrial Health and Safety †††††††††† 03

Deputy Director, Industrial Health and Safety ††††† †††††††††††††10

Assistant Director Industrial Health and Safety †††††††††††††††† 27

Assistant Director (Medical)†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 01

In addition to the above, the directorate also has supporting administrative and technical staff.

7.3.3.  Activities : 

  Thedifferentactivities undertaken by thedepartmentare given below

 

7.3.3.1†††† Enforcement :

The Directorate enforces provisions containedinthe following statutes:

 

(a)The Factories Act, 1948, 1948 and the M .P .Factories rules1962

(b)The Minimum wage act, 1948
(c)†† Payment of Wages Act ,1936

(d)†† Maternity Benefit Act,1961
(e)†† Dangerous Machines (Regulations) Act ,1983

(f)†† The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals†† Rules 1989

Inspection†† of†† processing factories, identification†† of unregistered factories, investigation of accidents, approval of plans, attending to complaints is some of the activities undertaken†† for†† effective implementation†† of†† statutory provisions.

 

7.3.3.2†† Education and Training :  

The Directorate in collaboration with Regional Labour Institute, Kanpur, Ministry Of Labour, Government Of India, Disaster Management Institute, Bhopal also conducts education and training programs for increasing safety and health awareness amongst various target groups from factories.Seminars and workshops are also organized to deliberate and discuss issues of safety and health and tocome out with practicable solutionstothe problems. 

  

7.3.3.3Promotional activities :   

 

In addition, the Directorate is also involved in organizing industry-enforcement authority meet, safety day celebrations, exhibitions etc to promote workplace safety and health in factories. 

 

7.3.3.4 Inspection activities

  The state of Madhya Pradesh as on 1 December 2003, has a total of 12104 registered factories under The Factories Act 1948 (Amended 1987) employing about 6,74,496 workers. The inspectors fromdirectorate has carried out 2837 inspections up to December 2002.

 

Table No-28

 

Classification based on Employment capacities of the of Registered Factories

 

 

Reference Date

Classification based on Employment capacities of the of Registered Factories

Less than 10 Workers

10-20 Workers

21-50 Workers

51-100 Workers

101-250 Workers

More than 250 Workers

Total

1.1.2001

5201

2856

1960

810

415

251

11493

1.1.2002

5276

2954

2008

827

416

252

11733

1.12.2003

5356

3049

2038

831

416

255

11945

 

 

Table No-29

 

Inspection, Prosecution ,Pending cases in the courts and Punishment

Details

2001-2002

2002-2003

 

2003-2004

Up to Noví2003

Inspection

4369

3791

1569

Prosecution filed

260

271

93

Prosecution Decided

364

265

193

Percentage of cases wherein penalty imposed

93.13

-

 

Penalty Amount(in Lakhs)

12.69

9.006

8.27

 

 

It is also seen from the table-29†† that the number of inspection have reduced considerably due changed policies of the state Government such reduction in the inspection may pose long term problems to the health and safety of the workers.

 7.3.3.5 Prosecutions and convictions

 

The chapter 10 of The Factories Act, 1948 provides for penalties and procedures for violation of the provisions.The analysis shows that the prosecutions have been carried out under the section 92 of The Factories Act, 1948.The section 92 of The Factories Act, 1948 speaks about the general penalties for offences.

  

7.4 Development of Computerized Information Center

 

While collecting the information and data relating to the Safety Health and Welfare of the workers, Number of factories, Number of employees etc it was felt by the task force that there are lot of scopes to effectively update the data and other information with the help of computerization in the Directorate Of Industrial Health and Safety Madhya Pradesh as well the whole organisation of the Labour Commissioner.

 

The rapid growth in information technology has given a new dimensions to the management of the organisation. The functions and importance of the management information system have increased considerably. It is the requirement of the day that in the present time of the liberalization privatization and globalization it extremely essential to have updated information relating to the Safety, Health and Welfare of the workers working in the factories and other information about the environmental aspect directly and indirectly effecting the employees.

 

Madhya Pradesh is a big state and the responsibilities of directorate are equally big. The enforcement of laws and related rules in such a big state with the help of limited inspectors posted in scattered areas, has putthe directorate far behind the approach of new technology and its benefitsThe only reason observed behind it, is lack of computerization and its related utilities to the Directorate.

It is strongly recommended that the Directorate of State of Madhya Pradesh must be equipped with IT updates for effective data collection and data analysis in respect of health & safety. Minimum requirement in this regard is being given below .

 

At Head quarter

1.Insllation of V-SET system

2.Application Soft wares for Factory registration and management system.

At Regional Office

1.      Computers

2.      Printers

3.      Modem

4.     Telephone

 

7.5 Boiler Directorate

The state of Madhya Pradesh has got a Boiler Directorate is working under The Department of Commerce and Industry.. This Directorate is headed by a Director and assisted by three Dy. Directors and six Assistant Directors.

Boiler Directorate is working for the safety of the workers and enforcing following Central Act and Different Rules framed by the state. The Inspection of the boilers are carried out by the office of the directorate during construction stage of the boiler and components such as valve, super heaters ,tubes, economizers etc.

        Indian Boiler Act,1923

        Indian Boiler Regulation,1950

        Madhya Pradesh Boiler Rule,1969

        Madhya Pradesh Economizer Rules, 1959

        Madhya Pradesh Boiler Operation engineers Rules, 1958

        Madhya Pradesh Boiler attendant Rules, 1958


7.6 Women and child labour

 

7.6.1 Women Worker


As per 1991 Census the women percentage, of the total population of the state, was 26.3%.Women workers are mainly employed in agricultural sector. The women workers have been treated at par with men in all labour laws but the Equal Remuneration Act 1976 and the Maternity Benefit Act 1961 have been effectively enforced for women workers keeping in view of their specific needs give. The details of the activities undertaken under these acts are given in Table No.30

 

Table-30

Name of Act

Details

2001-2002

2002-2003 (Up to Dec Ď02

Number

Percentage of Prosecutions

Number

Percentage of Prosecutions

Equal Remuneration Act 1976

Inspections

2905

8.42

2291

9.95

Prosecutions

245

228

Maternity Benefit Act 1961

Inspections

1514

7.73

843

7.35

Prosecutions

117

62

 

 

 

 

 

7.6.2 CHILD LABOUR

 

The employment of children up to the age of 14 years is completely prohibited in57 process and 13 occupations as notified by Govt. of India under Child Labour (Provision & Regulations) Act 1986.In addition, employment of child labour is also prohibited under Factories Act, Beedi & Cigar workers Act, Motor transport workers Act., Mines Act & Madhya Pradesh Shop and Establishment Act.

 

According to 1991 census data of child labour in the age group of 5-14 yrs. were found as below:

 

1.

Mainly Employed

7.01 Lakhs

2.

Partially Employed

2.56 Lakhs

3.

Total

9.57 Lakhs

4.

Percentage of mainly & partially employed children out of total population of 5-14 yrs. age group children.

7.66 %

(Data based on 2001 census is not available yet.)

During 1997 a survey was carried out to find the child labour working in dangerous and non dangerous establishment and according to this survey it was found that out of 11820 workers 8826 workers were found working in dangerous occupation.Based on the survey 3630 employers were prosecuted and about 3.65 lacks rupees have been collected as compensation under the Act.

 

For proper execution of schemes regarding elimination & rehabilitation of child labour, committees have been made at state and district level being headed by Principal secretary and District Collector respectively.

 

7.7††† Beedi Workers


††††††††† Beedi industry has got key placein unorganised sector of the state.After agricultural employment, it ids the beedi workers that are probably maximum in the state.

 

Implementation of Beedi And Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act 1966.

 

This Act has been made keeping in view of the welfare and special circumstances of the workers employed in the beedi industry. The number of registered institutes and beedi workers in them having identity cards up to December 2002,under the Beedi And Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act 1966,is 364 and 804577 respectively.

 

The enforcement data under the Act is given below;

 

Serial No.

Particulars

2001-2002

2002-2003 (Up to December 2002)

1

Inspections

1756

1228

2

Prosecutions

169

130

 

Two Central Acts are in effects for welfare of beedi workers as mentioned below.

 

 

7.8††† Workers employed in Unorganised Sector

 

More than 90 % of the workers of the country are in unorganised sector while it is even lesser than 10 % employed in unorganised sector.But workers in organised sector obtain most of the benefits of Labour Laws while workers in unorganised sector remain deprived of such benefits.

 

Majority of workers in unorganised sector in the state are employed in works like agriculture, forestry, mining, beedi, transport, construction, hotels/dhabba and brick-kilns.Some of the problems faced workers in unorganised sector are as below:

 

1.                                          ††Lac of education & awareness.

2.Temporary, irregular & employments of changing nature.

3.                  ††Lac of social security.

4.                  ††Unsafe & unsatisfactory working conditions.

5.                  ††Small sized & geographically scattered employing units.

6.                  ††Low levels of income and productivity.

7.                  ††Difficulty in getting organised.

 

Looking at the serious nature of problems of workers in unorganised sector, the state administration had formed one Working Group in July, 2001 for giving recommendations regarding improvement in the standard of giving of such workers.The reference points of working group were as following:

 

1.       To study the social and economical conditions of workers in the unorganised sector of the state (with special reference to their employment, earnings, social security & productivity levels) to identify the sectors where unorganised level is a majority (like agriculture, forestry, mining, construction informally employed urban areas) and to suggest the measures for improving the living standard and levels of employment, and earning looking at the nature of the future prospect of the labour market (like credit system improvement in sales, technology & skills).

 

2.                                                          †††For the protection & development of unorganised labour and to assess their current status and their effects of the following and to suggest new methods changes about them.

 

        Legislation and policy

        Schemes and programmes

        Social security measures

        Institution and organisation specially at the decision making levels in reference to enhance the participation, negotiate, capacity and strengthen of unorganised labour.

 

3.      The working group will give special attention to following while giving the recommendations in improvement in the level of the employment, skills, earnings, strengthening the women labour and development of their children so as to make their future bright.

 

As per the Working Group report, the employmentwise details of unorganised workers of the state is given in the table No-31

 

Table-31

 

Nature of Employment

No of workers engaged in unorganised sector(Lakhs)

Percentage of total workers in unorganised sector

Small farmers

69.60

34.6

Landless Agricultural workers

73.57

36.6

Miner and mining worker

0.64

0.3

Manufacturing

14.95

7.4

Construction

8.97

4.5

Trading Hotel & restaurant

17.47

8.7

Transport

3.95

2.0

Others

11.78

5.9

Total

200.93

100