OCCUPATIONAL  INJURIES  IN MANUFACTURING  ACTIVITIES

(COVERED  UNDER  THE  FACTORIES  ACT,  1948)

 

 

The State of Goa has 586 working industries covered under the Factories Act, 1948. In the year 2000, there were 165 reportable accidents in those factories. Out of which 6 are fatal and 159 are non-fatal injuries.

 

For classification of accidents, the Indian Standard 3786 : 1983, titled “Methods for computation of Frequency and Severity Rates in Industrial Injuries” and classification of industrial accidents along the ILO Code of Practice on recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases were used. The industries were classified according to the new industrial classification – 1987 NIC Code. The fatal and non-fatal accidents have been dealt with separately and a number of injuries have been taken for a group of industries. The accidents in MAH installations have been taken separately.

 

5.1    FATAL INJURIES

 

The fatal injuries in the State of Goa as reported in the Annual Returns submitted by the factories for the year 2000 are 6 (six). The six fatal accidents were analyzed as per IS 3786 : 1983 and the ILO Code of Practice of Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases. The analysis has been done industry group-wise, cause wise, agency wise, nature of injury wise, location of injury wise, sex and age wise respectively.

 

5.1.1        Industry wise  :  Of the total 6 fatal injuries analysed, 4 accidents were in the units manufacturing Basic Metals and Alloys. The industry wise analysis revealed that about 66.8% of fatal injuries occurred in Basic Metals and Alloys Industries and 16.6% each occurred in Chemicals and Chemical Products and Transport Equipment and Parts manufacturing industries. The industry wise fatal injuries are given in Table-1.

 

TABLE – 1

 

INDUSTRY WISE FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Industry

No. of Accidents

Percentage

 

1

Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products

1

16.6

2

Basic metals and Alloys

4

66.8

3

Manufacture of Transport Equipment and Parts

1

16.6

 

5.1.2              Cause-wise  :  The analysis of the 6 fatal injuries shows that “Fall of the Persons” and “Exposure to or contact with electric objects” have  contributed to about 33.3%  each of total fatal accidents. Rest 16.6% each was contributed by “Stepping, Striking & Struck against” and “Fall of objects”, respectively. Table-2 shows the above cause-wise break-up of fatal injuries.

 

TABLE – 2

 

CAUSE WISE FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Type of Accident

No. of Accidents

 

Percentage

 

1

Fall of persons

2

33.3

2

Exposure to or contact with electric objects

2

33.3

3

Stepping, striking, struck against

1

16.7

4

Fall of objects

1

16.7

 

5.1.3        Agency-wise  : In terms of the agency involved in the fatal injuries, Explosives, Metal Working Machines, Other Wheeled means of Transport and Other Equipment have contributed each 16.7% and Electrical Installation has caused only 33.2% which is the remaining percentage. Table 3 gives the agency-wise fatal accidents.

 

 

TABLE – 3

 

AGENCY WISE FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Agency Involved

No. of Accidents

 

Percentage

1

Explosive

1

16.7

2

Electrical Installations

2

33.2

3

Metal Working Machine

1

16.7

4

Other wheeled means of transport

1

16.7

5

Other equipment

1

16.7

 

 

5.1.4       Nature-wise  :  Nature of injury analysis of the fatal injuries reveals that 50% are due to Other unspecified injuries while Effect of Electric Current and Multiple Injuries cover 33.3% and 16.7%, respectively. Table-4 shows the nature-wise fatal injuries.

 

TABLE – 4

 

NATURE WISE FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Nature of Injury

No. of Accidents

Percentage

1

Multiple Injuries

1

16.7

2

Effect of electric current

2

33.3

3

Other unspecified injuries

3

50.0

 

5.1.5       Location-wise  : Unspecified location of injury caused 50% of the total fatal injuries, location-wise, while, Head, Lower Limb and Multiple Location each covered 16.7%. Location-wise fatal accidents are shown in Table-5.

 

TABLE – 5

 

LOCATION WISE FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Location of Injury

 

No. of Accidents

Percentage

 

1

Lower limb

1

16.7

2

Unspecified location of injury

3

50.0

3

Head

1

16.7

4

Multiple locations

1

16.6

 

5.1.6        Age and Sex wise :  A total of 6 people have met with fatal accident, of these all are male. Out of above 6 fatal accidents, 5 were from the age group 18-36 whereas one was in between 36 to 51 years of age group. All the workers met with fatal injury were insured. Table-6 shows all the above details.

 

TABLE – 6(A)

 

SEX-WISE FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Sex

No. of Accidents

Percentage

 

1

Male

6

100

2

Female

0

0

 

 

TABLE – 6(B)

 

INSURED/UNINSURED FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Insured/Uninsured

No. of Accidents

Percentage

 

1

Insured

6

100

2

Uninsured

0

0

 

TABLE – 6(C)

 

AGE-WISE FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Age

No. of Accidents

Percentage

1

18 to   < 36

5

83.3

2

36 to   < 51

1

16.7

 

 

5.2    NON-FATAL INJURIES

 

A total of 159 non-fatal occupational injuries have been reported by 17 industries in the State of Goa.  The  classification  of  accidents  and injuries were done according to the IS : 3786-1983 and also ILO Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases.

 

5.2.1   Industry-wise:  The industry-wise analysis of non-fatal injuries shows that 25.16% of the accidents are in the Basic Metals and Alloyed manufacturing industry and 20.14% are in the industries manufacturing Transport Equipment and Parts and 18.56% in Rubber, plastic, Petroleum and Coal Products manufacturing industries. Table -7 shows the industry-wise non-fatal injuries.

 

                                                                     TABLE – 7

 

INDUSTRY-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Industry

No. of Accidents

Percentage

 

1

Food products

4

2.44

2

Beverage, tobacco and tobacco products

3

1.92

3

Cotton textiles

7

4.40

4

Textile products

1

0.06

5

Paper products

1

0.60

6

Chemicals and chemical products

13

8.14

7

Rubber, plastic, petroleum and coal products

28

18.56

8

Non-metallic products

1

0.60

9

Basic metal and alloyed products

40

25.16

10

Metal products and parts

7

4.40

11

Machinery and machine tool

1

0.60

12

Electrical parts/electronic machinery and parts

10

6.00

13

Transport equipment and parts

32

20.14

14

Other manufacturing industries

1

0.60

15

Repair of capital goods

8

5.00

16

Wholesale trade, fuel and petroleum

1

0.60

17

Repair services

1

0.60

18

Storages and warehousing services

--

--

 

5.2.2       Age and Sex-wise  :   Of the injured, all were male. Injuries were high (62.26%) in the age group 18 – 61, followed by 35.22% in the age group 36-51 whereas 2.52% was in the age group 51-61. 95% of the injured were insured and 5% uninsured. Table-8 gives details of injuries age and sex-wise.

 

 

TABLE – 8(A)

 

SEX-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Sex

No. of Accidents

Percentage

 

1

Male

159

100

2

Female

0

0

 

 

TABLE – 8(B)

 

INSURED/UNINSURED NON-FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Insured/Uninsured

No. of Accidents

Percentage

 

1

Insured

151

95

2

Uninsured

8

5

 

 

TABLE – 8(C)

 

AGE-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Age

No. of Accidents

Percentage

1

15 to   < 18

--

--

2

18 to   < 36

99

62.26

3

36 to   < 51

56

35.22

4

51 to   < 61

4

02.52

5

61   & above

--

--

 

 

5.2.3       Cause-wise  :  Cause-wise analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows that 37.10% of the accidents are due to stepping, striking and struck against objects, 21.40% due to caught in between objects, 15.74% due to fall of objects and 15.10% due to fall of persons.  Table-9 shows the cause-wise non-fatal injuries.

 

TABLE – 9

 

CAUSE-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Type of Accidents

No. of Accidents

Percentage

1

Fall of persons

24

15.10

2

Fall of objects

25

15.74

3

Stepping, striking and struck against

59

37.10

4

Caught in between objects

34

21.40

5

Over exertion or wrong movement

1

0.63

6

Exposure to or contact with extreme temperature

6

3.75

7

Exposure to or contact with electric objects

1

0.63

8

Exposure to or contact with harmful substance

9

5.65

 

5.2.4   Agency-wise :   The Indian Standard 3786 : 1983 which is as comprehensive as the ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accident and Diseases has been used to classify the accidents in to 20 Major Categories. These are given in Annex of the report.

 

            The analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows that other material and substances is the major agency contributing to 23.29% of the injuries and other machines as well as Tools, implements and appliances have contributed 13.22% of the injuries each.

 

                                                                     TABLE – 10

 

AGENCY-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Agency

No. of Accidents

Percentage

1

Prime movers

8

5.02

2

Transmission machines

7

4.40

3

Metal working machines

10

6.29

4

Wood and associated machines

3

1.88

5

Other machines

21

13.22

6

Other wheeled means of transport

4

2.51

7

Other means of transport

--

--

8

Pressure vessels

2

1.26

9

Electrical installations

3

1.88

10

Tools, implements and appliances

21

13.22

11

Ladders, mobile ramps

6

3.78

12

Scaffolding

6

3.78

13

Other equipment

12

7.54

14

Explosives

1

0.63

15

Dust, gases, liquid and chemicals

11

6.90

16

Flying objects

7

4.40

17

Other material and substances

37

23.29

 

5.2.5   Location-wise  :  According to IS 3786 : 1983 and ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases, the location of injury has been divided into 9 categories. 65% of the injuries have occurred in the upper limb region comprising of shoulder, upper arm, elbow, fore-arm, wrist, hand and fingers. This is followed by injuries in lower limb region 17.6% and 7% each for Multiple locations and injuries in Unspecified locations. Table-11 shows the distribution of injuries location-wise.

 

TABLE – 11

 

LOCATION-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Location Of Injury

No. of Accidents

Percentage

1

Head

6

3.77

2

Neck

--

--

3

Trunk

--

--

4

Upper limb

103

64.78

5

Lower limb

28

17.61

6

Multiple locations

11

6.92

7

General injuries

--

--

8

Unspecified locations

11

6.92

 

5.2.6       Nature-wise Injury  :  Nature of injury according to IS 3786 is classified into 14 categories, like fracture, dislocation, sprains, concussion, amputation, wounds, contusions & crushing, burns, acute poisoning, asphyxia, electrical currents, etc.

 

Non-fatal injuries in the state have been found to be mainly by the nature of wounds like lacerations, cuts, contusion with wounds, scalp wounds, etc. superficial injuries contributed to the highest, i.e. 39% followed by Dislocations contributing to13.2% and burns- 11.3%, other unspecified injuries 8.2%, contusions, other wounds and fractures 7% each of the total injuries. Table-12 gives the nature of injury-wise distribution.

 

TABLE – 12

 

DISTRIBUTION OF NON-FATAL INJURIES

 

S.No.

Nature of injury

No. of Accidents

Percentage

 

1

Fracture

11

6.92

2

Dislocations

21

13.21

3

Sprains and strains

2

1.26

4

Amputations and encleations

5

3.14

5

Other wounds

11

6.92

6

Superficial injuries

62

38.99

7

Contusions and crushings

11

6.92

8

Burns

18

11.32

9

Acute poisoning

1

0.63

10

Multiple injury of different nature

4

2.51

11

Others and unspecified injuries

13

8.18

5.3                                

5.4                                

5.5      COMPUTATION OF FREQUENCY, SEVERITY AND INCIDENT RATES

                          

5.3.1 Frequency Rate (FR)  :   The Frequency Rate is calculated for the number of reportable lost time injuries. The FR for 165 accidents in all types of industries taken together is 2.00 and for the fatal injuries, it is 0.07.

 

5.3.2 Severity Rate (SR)   :   The Severity Rate is calculated on the basis of man-days lost due to reportable injuries and man-hours worked. The SR for 165 accidents in all type of industries taken together is 4.63 and that for the fatal injuries, it is 1.69.

 

5.3.3 Incidence Rate (IR)  :    The general Incidence Rate is taken as the ratio of the number of injuries to the number of persons employed during the period of review and is expressed as per thousand persons employed. The IR for all types of injuries in the State of Goa for the year 2000 is 4.49. Industry-wise FR, SR and IR are given in the table-13.

 

         Accident         =          Reportable + Fatal

 

         FR                   =          Total No. of Accidents x 106

                                             Total Man-Hour Worked

 

SR                   =          Total No. of Man-days lost x 106

                                             Total Man-Hour Worked

 

         IR                     =          Total No. of Accidents x 1000

                                             Total No. of Persons Employed

 

TABLE – 13

 

Sr. No.

Industry

FR

SR

IR

1

Food products

0.75

17.80

1.18

2

Beverage

0.72

9.0

1.67

3

Cotton Textile

17.80

160.35

50.95

4

Textile product

0.45

3.60

1.10

5

Paper product

0.33

2.32

0.92

6

Chemicals and chemical products

0.59

12.76

1.52

7

Rubber, plastic, petroleum & Coal Products

4.50

49.99

11.52

8

Non-metallic products

0.48

85.58

1.04

9

Basic metals and alloys

6.83

251.20

16.58

10

Metal production and parts

5.03

158.86

11.90

11

Machinery, machine tools and parts

0.56

6.18

1.44

12

Electrical/electronic

1.85

40.96

4.41

13

Transport equipment and parts

3.18

59.14

8.23

14

Other manufacturing industries

0.25

4.90

0.53

15

Repair of capital goods

3.35

45.73

9.66

16

Wholesale trade

2.54

45.81

5.84

17

Repair services

2.28

13.67

5.20

 

 

5.4    ACCIDENTS IN MAH FACTORIES

 

The State of Goa has 10 working MAH Units, employing 3252 persons. Out of these 3087 are male and 165 are female workers. There have been no fatal injuries except a few non-fatal injuries in these units. None of the injury involved fire, explosion and toxic release.