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DISCONTINUATION OF APPROVAL ACCORDED TO THE MANUFACTURERS OF THE FLAME PROOF EQUIPMENT
FOR USE IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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RETL

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RESPIRATORY EQUIPMENT TESTINGLABORATORY (RETL)

FACILITIES AVAILABLE FOR TESTING OF RESPIRATORY PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (RETL)

INTRODUCTION

Most of the chemicals that are used, handled, processed or manufactured in industries are harmful to the workers in varying degrees. These chemicals may be toxic, corrosive or carcinogenic and may cause health hazards through inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption. Technological measures are practiced in many industries to control toxic contaminants in work environment. However, there are situations when the use of respiratory devices becomes vital and essential.

Most of the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) are manufactured in the small scale enterprises. These small scale industries do not possess adequate resources and facilities for testing raw materials and the finished PPE as per the Specifications laid down in relevant Standard prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). They do not also have the research and developmental facilities. Technical guidance and advice is also not readily available to them for improving the quality of these equipment.

It has been observed from the Hand Book of Labour Statistics (1992), of Labour Bureau, Ministry of Labour, Government of India, Chandigarh/Shimla that every year more number of workers get exposed to the various types of chemicals and contract occupational diseases. Thus, PPE play an important role in safe-guarding the health of the industrial workers from various occupational diseases, provided they meet the requirements of the specified standard of BIS.

OBJECTIVE

The main objectives of Respiratory Equipment Testing Laboratory are :

    1. to develop testing facilities to assess the performance and efficiency of the various respiratory PPE as per BIS Specifications.
    2. To render Technical advice to the manufacturers on the functional efficiency and the quality improvement and guidance to the user industries on selection, use, care and maintenance of the respiratory PPE.

AMENDMENT IN THE FACTORIES ACT

First Schedule {Section 2 (cb)} of the Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987 provides the list of 29 different industries involving hazardous processes.

Second Schedule (Section 41-F) lists the permissible levels of 117 toxic chemicals causing various occupational diseases by entering into body through the vital respiratory mode. In view of this, it is of foremost importance to use various respiratory PPE as the preventive measures against these toxic chemicals.

Rule 81 of Model Rules under the Factories Act, 1948 (corrected upto 31.3.1987), Government of India, prescribes the use of various PPE.

ACHIEVEMENTS

  1. Disposable dust masks

A simple, inexpensive, comfortable and disposable type dust mask was developed by this Laboratory. It was made from low cost man-made fibres by the die-punch moulding technique. Developed masks were subjected to performance tests in accordance with the U.S. Bureau of Mines specifications. Extensive work was carried out on these masks to determine the performance parameters such as filtering efficiency, breathing resistance and mechanical strength. The complete know-how data was transferred to the National Research and Development Corporation (NRDC), New Delhi for its transmission to the industries for its commercial production.

  1. Present Testing Facilities :

Now, this Laboratory is equipped with the facilities to undertake the testing of canister, cartridge type respirators and dust respirators as per the Standard specifications laid down by the BIS.

Canister and cartridge type respirators are tested against the following gases and vapour.

    1. Chlorine
    2. Ammonia
    3. Sulphur dioxide
    4. Hydrogen sulphide and
    5. Organic vapour.

..

TYPES OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND RELATED TESTS

Type of PPE BIS Standard and related Tests

Type of PPE BIS Standard and related Tests

CANISTER TYPE (Gas Mask)  IS : 8523 – 1977*

 

Performance Tests :

  1. Front or Back Mounted
  1. Breathing Resistance :
  • Chin Type

                                            i.                        Inhalation Resistance and

                                          ii.                        Exhalation Resistance

  • Escape Type
  • Life and efficiency of sorbents against the specific gas/vapour:
    1. With Equilibration and
    2. Without Equilibration
  • Valve leakage test and
  • Face piece fitness test.

CARTRIDGE TYPE IS:8522 – 1977*

Similar tests as mentioned above

DUST RESPIRATOR IS:9473 – 1980*

Reaffirmed in February, 1991

  1. Breathing Resistance :
    1. With Equilibration and
    2. Without Equilibration.
  2. Efficiency of the filter against silica dust
  3. Valve leakage test
  4. Pressure tightness test and
  5. Coal dust tightness test

(face piece fitness test)

 

 

ASPECTS ON WHICH THE USER INDUSTRIES ARE ADVISED

 

  1. Type of PPE
  2. Quality and performance
  3. Workers’ views/suggestions towards the acceptability/suitability of PPE
  4. Managements’ views
  5. Awareness to proper selection, use, care and maintenance of PPE.

 

ASPECTS CONSIDERED FORADVISING THE MANUFACTURE

 

i.                        Anthropometric data.

      ii.            Ergonomic design

    iii.            Convenience and comfort during use

    iv.            Quality and reliability and

      v.            Suitability under tropical conditions

 

 

 

INSTITUTIONAL FEE

Institutional fee is nominal and is basically promotional in nature. The current institutional fee for the service rendered by the Laboratory for testing of various types of respiratory PPE is levied as given below:

                        Respiratory Personal Protective Equipment

Sl. No.

Type of Respirator

Institute Fee (Per Sample)

1

Canister Type

Rs. 725/-

2

Combination of Cartridge and Mechanical Type (Particulate Filter)

Rs. 725/-

 

3

Cartridge Type

Rs. 725/-

4

Mechanical Type

Rs. 725/-

5.

Breathing Air Cylinder

Rs. 725/-

...

Non – Respiratory Testing laboratory (NRTL)
Facilities available FOR testing of non – respiratory personal protective equipment (NRPPE)

Adequate protection of body is essential in order to ensure the safety of human life at work in every industry though the nature of protection varies from industry to industry and is dependent not only on the type of operation but also on the kind of hazard associated. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) are always recommend for use in industry to protect the workmen against physical, chemical, and biological agents which possess hazard potentials of causing harmful health effects to the workers. Various engineering control method and technologies are generally applied to minimise the degree and intensity of such occupational hazards ,but in case of certain industrial hazards ,but in case of certain industrial situations ,there is no choice but to recommend the use of PPE . The magnitude of use of problem of using PPE in industries have increased in the recent years due to the growth of modern technologies and effective safety awareness programme.

It has been well recognized that the degree of protection provided by the PPE to the workers greatly depends upon their selection, use, and the extent of their performance in actual operation. The use of Personal Protective Equipment (ppe) by the employees in the factories under different situations, is a statutory provisions made under Sections 32,35 and 36 of the Factories Act, 1948. The Bureau Of Indian Standards (BIS) has brought out many standards on Personal Protective Equipment for protection of eyes, face, ears, feet, legs ,hand, head, etc. in addition to guidelines for selection and use of such equipment. However, the testing facilities available in the few institutes in the country is not sufficient to ensure the quality of products as per the Bureau Of Indian Standards.

Therefore ,the Central Labour Institute , Mumbai has set up to a Non-Respiratory Equipment Testing Laboratory (NRTL) to carry out Performance test for different types of PPE’s as per the standards laid down by the BIS .The laboratory is equipped with all the sophisticated equipment that are needed for testing of PPE. At present the laboratory undertakes testing of samples of PPE and issues performance test reports in regard to the quality of protective appliances.

The various tests that could be undertaken by the laboratory as per the standards of the BIS are given in details.

Types of Personal Protective Equipment and Various Tests

Name of PPE

Tests that are carried out

Safety Helmet

IS:2925-1984

1.      Clearance above the head and the wearing height

2.      Shock absorption resistance

3.      Penetration resistance

4.      Flammability Resistance

5.      Water Absorption

6.      Heat Resistance

7.      Sterilization

8.      Corrosion Resistance of metal parts

Eye Protectors

Safety Goggles

Safety Spectacle

IS:5983-1980

IS:7524(Part-I)-1979

Non-Optical tests

  1. Stability at elevated temperature
  2. Test for Robustness
  3. Resistance to corrosion of metal parts
  4. Suitability for Disinfection
  5. Proof against chemical splashes

IS:7524(Part-II)-1979

Optical Tests

1.      Spherical, cylindrical and Prismatic powers

2.      Determination of transmittance (UV/VIS/IR)

3.      Quality of material & Surface

Welding Helmets

Welding Hand Shield

IS: 1179 -1967

  1. Corrosion Resistance of metal parts
  2. Disinfection
  3. Flammability

Filter :--

Welding Filter ,Ultra Violet

Filter, Infra Red Filter

 

IS:1179-1967/IS:5983-1980

a.                   Stability at elevated temperature

b.      Optical-Power Spherical , Daylight Filter Cylindrical , Prismatic

c.       Robustness

d.                  Transmittance

Filter Cover

IS:1179-1967/IS:5983-1980

a.                   Stability at elevated temperature

b.      Optical-Power Spherical , Daylight Filter Cylindrical , Prismatic

c.       Robustness

d.                  Transmittance

Visor

IS:9973-1981

a.                   Impact Resistance

b.      Penetration Resistance

c.       FlammabilityPower

d.      Spherical & Cylindrical Prismatic

e.                   Transmittance

Face Shield with Plastic Visor

 

IS:8521(Part-I)-1977
IS:8521(Part-I)-1994

1.      Visual and Dimensional Examination

2.      Impact Resistance

3.      Visible Transmittance

4.      Flammability

5.      Disinfection

Safety Shoes

(a)Leather Safety Shoes

IS:5852-1996 / IS:11226 –1993

  1. Impact test for protective  steel toe caps

IS:5914-1970

  • Leather Sole Apparent density

a.       Water Absorption

    1. Total Ash
    2. pH of water soluble

IS:11226-1993/IS:13469-1992

3.      Rubber/ PVC Sole and heels

a.                   Flex Resistance testing (Ross Flexing)
IS:3400(Part-XVI-)/12240(Part-7)

    1. Relative DensityIS:3400-1978
      (Part-IX)/12240(Part-3)
    2. HardnessIS3400(Part-II)/ 12240(Part-6)-1988
    3. Electrical resistivity(Antistatic)
      IS:3400(Part-XV)-1971
    4. Oil ResistanceIS:11226/13469-1992
    5. Chemical Resistance IS:11226-1993/IS:13469-1992

g.                  Tensile Strength

h.                  Elongation at breakIS:11226-1993/IS:13469-1992

IS:2961-1973 IS:5677-1986

4.      Chrome upper leather

  1. Tensile Strength
  2. Elongation at Break
  3. Water absorption
  4. Stitch tear strength
  5. Tongue tear resistance
  6. Heat Resistance
  7. Chromium content as Cr2O3
  1. Rubber PVC Sole and heels
    1. Flex Resistance testing (Ross Flexing) IS:3400(Part-XVI-)/12240(Part-7
    2. Relative DensityIS:3400-1978 (Part-IX)/12240(Part-3)
    3. HardnessIS3400(Part-II)/12240(Part-6)-1988
    4. Electrical resistivity (Antistatic) IS:3400(Part-XV)-1971
    5. Oil ResistanceIS:11226/13469-1992
    6. Chemical Resistance IS:11226-1993/IS:13469-1992
    7. Tensile Strength

h.                  Elongation at break IS:11226-1993/IS:13469-1992

(b) Rubber /PVC Knee Boots ( Gum Boots )

IS:12254-1993 IS-13695-1993

1.      Rubber/PVC Sole and heels

a.                   Impact test (IS:12254)

b.                  Thickness

c.                   Flex resistance testing (Ross Flexing) IS:3400(Part-XVI-)/12240(Part-7)-1988.

d.                  HardnessIS3400(Part-II)/12240(Part-6)-1988

e.                   Lead Content IS:12254-1993

f.                   Volatility IS:12254-1993

g.                  Relative Density IS:3400(Part-IX)-1978/IS:12254-1993

h.                  Tensile Strength and elongation at break IS: 12240 (Part-6)-1988

IS:13695-1993/IS:12254-1993

·         Rubber –upper testing –

a.                   Thickness

b.                  Relative density

c.                   Hardness

d.                  Aging tests-heat treatment IS-3400(Part-IV)

e.                   Adhesion test –fabric and rubber IS-3400(Part-V)

f.                   Oil Resistance test

g.                  Air leakage Resistance

 

Hand protectors

  1. Safety Gloves(Natural Rubber Synthetic Rubber etc.)

IS:4770-1991

1.      Thickness

2.      Tensile Strength

3.      Elongation at break

4.      Tear strength

5.      Tension set

6.      Tensile Stress at 200% elongation

7.      Moisture Absorption

8.      After ageing

a.                   Tensile Strength

b.                  Elongation at break

1.      Test Potential and Leakage current

2.      Breakdown voltage

 

  1. Safety Clothing /SafetyGloves ( Leather )

IS:2573-1986

  1. Size and Dimension
  2. Tensile Strength
  3. Elongation at break
  4. Crackiness of grain
  5. Chromium Content
  6. pH value

 

  1. Hand protectors Safety Clothing (PVC Coated fabrics Double textured rubberized Water proof ness fabrics)

IS:6110-1983 IS:3322(Part-I)-1987

1.      Water proofness test

2.      Breaking Strength

a.                   Longitudinal direction

b.                  Transverse direction

1.      Accelerated Ageing

2.      Resistance to cold

3.      Resistance to acid & alkali.

 

INSTITUTIONAL FEE

The present charges for the services rendered by the laboratory for testing of different types of Non-Personal Protective Equipment are given below:

            Non- Respiratory Personal Protective Equipment  

Type of Respirator

Institute Fee (Per Sample)

Safety Goggles, Safety Helmet, Face Shield, Safety Hand-gloves, Safety Ear Muff and Ear Plug, Chemical Apron / Suit

Rs. 725/-

Steel toe cap and Upper Leather and Sole of Safety shoe

Rs. 2175/-

Safety Belt & Full Body Harness

Rs. 2425/-

* The samples along with institute fee (Demand Draft in favour of Central Labour 
   Institute, Mumbai) should be submitted 15 days in advance for reports.



 

 

 

(E) SAFETY GUIDELINES ON HOISTS AND LIFTS

 

1. INTRODUCTION:

Lifts and hoists are used for raising or lowering persons and goods from one floor to another within a building. They are driven by electric motor either directly (electric lifts) or indirectly through the movement of a liquid under pressure generated by a pump driven by electric motor (hydraulic lifts).

Electric lifts are almost exclusively driven by traction machines, geared or gearless, depending upon speed of the cage/car. The designation “traction” means that the power of electric motor is transmitted to the multiple rope suspension of the cage/car and counterweight by friction between specially shaped grooves of the driving or “traction” sheaves of the machine and the ropes. This one of the several safety features of the system, because, when the counterweight land on the buffer in the pit, traction ceases and the power is no longer available to move the system, cage/car-ropes-counterweight, into the upper structure.

 

7

 

1.     Control System

2.     Motor

3.     Wire Rope on Sheave

4.     Counter weight

5.     Guides

6.     Cage/Car.

7.        Buffer

 
3                     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. BASICS OF WORKING OF A LIFT:

 

7

 
The sheave grips the hoist ropes, so when the sheave rotates, the ropes also move. The sheave is connected to electric motor (2). When the motor turns one way, the sheave raises the elevator; when the motor turns the other way, the sheave lowers the elevator. In gearless elevators, the motor rotates the sheaves directly. In geared elevators, the motor turns a gear train that rotates the sheave. Typically, the sheave, the motor and the control system (1) are all housed in a machine room above the elevator shaft. The ropes that lift the car are also connected to a counterweight (4), which hangs on the other side of the sheave. The counterweight weighs about the same as the car filled to 40-percent capacity. In other words, when the car is 40 percent full (an average amount), the counterweight and the car are perfectly balanced.

The purpose of this balance is to conserve energy. With equal loads on each side of the sheave, it only takes a little bit of force to tip the balance one way or the other. The motor only has to overcome friction -- the weight on the other side does most of the work. To put it another way, the balance maintains a near constant potential energy level in the system as a whole. Using up the potential energy in the elevator car (letting it descend to the ground) builds up the potential energy in the weight (the weight rises to the top of the shaft). The same thing happens in reverse when the elevator goes up. The system is just like a see-saw that has an equally heavy kid on each end.

Both the elevator car and the counterweight ride on guide rails (5) along the sides of the elevator shaft. The rails keep the car and counterweight from swaying back and forth, and they also work with the safety system to stop the car in an emergency.

 

3.  GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS:

 

      i.        Passenger and goods lifts should comply with safety requirements with view to safeguarding people and the objects against the risk of accidents associated with their operations. Possible accidents with such equipment include shearing; crushing; falling; impacts; trapping; fire; electrocution; damage to material etc. The persons to be safeguarded are the users; maintenance and inspection personnel and the persons outside the lift well and in the machine room. The objects to be safeguarded are the material in the cage/car; the component of the lift installed and the building.

     ii.        All components of the lift should be properly designed and should be of sound mechanical and electrical construction having adequate strength and quality.

    iii.        Shearing is prevented by providing adequate clearances between moving components and between moving and fixed parts.

    iv.        Crushing is prevented by safeguarding /providing sufficient headroom at the top of the cage/car in its highest position and the upper structure and a clear space in the pit for persons to remain safely when the cage/car is in its lowest position.

     v.        Protection against falling down the well is obtained by properly closed doors without any opening and by preventing the movement of the machine through cutting off the power to the control circuit until the doors are fully closed and safely locked.

    vi.        Impact is limited by restraining the kinetic energy of closing power operated doors, trapping of persons in the cage/car, by providing unlocking device on the doors and a means of lifting the brakes and moving the machine by hand.

   vii.        Overloading of the cage/car is prevented by a strict ratio between the rated load and net floor area of the cage/car.

 

4.  GOVERNOR:

This system prevents over speeding of the cage. Most governor systems are built around a sheave positioned at the top of the elevator shaft. The governor rope is looped around the governor sheave and another weighted sheave at the bottom of the shaft. The rope is also connected to the elevator car, so it moves when the car goes up or down. As the car speeds up, so does the governor.

In this governor, the sheave is outfitted with two hooked flyweights (weighted metal arms) that pivot on pins. The flyweights are attached in such a way that they can swing freely back and forth on the governor. But most of the time, they are kept in position by a high-tension spring. As the rotary movement of the governor builds up, centrifugal force moves the flyweights outward, pushing against the spring. If the elevator car falls fast enough, the centrifugal force will be strong enough to push the ends of the flyweights all the way to the outer edges of the governor. Spinning in this position, the hooked ends of the flyweights catch hold of ratchets mounted to a stationary cylinder surrounding the sheave. This works to stop the governor.

The governor ropes are connected to the elevator car via a movable actuator arm attached to a lever linkage. When the governor ropes can move freely, the arm stays in the same position relative to the elevator car (it is held in place by tension springs). But when the governor sheave locks itself, the governor ropes jerk the actuator arm up. This moves the lever linkage, which operates the brakes.

In this design, the linkage pulls up on a wedge-shaped safety, which sits in a stationary wedge guide. As the wedge moves up, it is pushed into the guide rails by the slanted surface of the guide. This gradually brings the elevator car to a stop.

5.  BRAKES:

Lifts also have electromagnetic brakes that engage when the cage comes to a stop. The electromagnets actually keep the brakes in the open position, instead of closing them. With this design, the brakes will automatically clamp shut if the elevator loses power.

Lifts also have automatic braking systems near the top and the bottom of the elevator shaft. If the lift cage moves too far in either direction, the brake brings it to a stop.

If all else fails, and the lift does fall down the shaft, there is one final safety measure that will probably save the passengers. The bottom of the shaft has a heavy-duty shock absorber system -- typically a piston mounted in an oil-filled cylinder. The shock absorber works like a giant cushion to soften the elevator cage's landing.

6.  EXAMINATION AND TESTS:

Prior to putting a lift into service and also when some modification /alteration major repair work is done, it should be examined and tested by an organization approved by the public authorities to establish its conformity with the applicable up-to-date standards. A technical dossier should be submitted to the public authority before putting the lift into service. The various elements to be examined and tested should include:

1.     Locking devices.

2.     Landing doors (Possibly fire tests)

3.     Safety Gear.

4.     Over speed Governors.

5.     Buffers.

Certificate of the corresponding components used in the installation should be included in the register. To check whether the lift has been kept in good working condition periodic through examination should be conducted by a competent person who has obtained skill and thorough knowledge of the mechanical and electrical defects of the lifts, safety rules and has been declared competent to conduct such examinations by the statutory public authority.

The examination is carried out to find out if the lift can continue to be used safely. A written report of the examination has to be made and given to the owner of the lift. If the examination has revealed that repairs are needed, the report must say this and give time limits by which the repairs have to be made. Lifts must be thoroughly examined every six months.

A thorough examination is a systematic and detailed examination of the lift and all its associated equipment by a competent person. Its aim is to detect any defects, which are, or might become, dangerous, and for the competent person to report them to the occupier so that appropriate remedial action can be taken.

To determine the extent of the thorough examination, the competent person will assess the risks, considering factors such as where the lift will be used, frequency of use, age and condition, the weight of loads to be lifted, etc.

A thorough examination may include some testing, if the competent person considers it to be necessary. The competent person will normally determine what tests are required, taking account of the relevant guidance and standards and occupier /owners are recommended to insist on this approach.

Thorough examination may also be supplemented by inspection. Inspections should be carried out at suitable intervals between thorough examinations and may be done ‘in-house’ by a competent, trained employee. Inspections would normally include visual and functional checks, e.g. that the alarm interlocks operate correctly and lift doors cannot be opened from the landing side.

Thorough examination should not be confused with preventive maintenance, although they have some elements in common. Preventive maintenance usually involves replacing worn or damaged parts, topping up fluid levels and making routine adjustments to ensure risks are avoided. Thorough examination may act as a check that maintenance is being carried out properly, but is not intended to replace it.

Thorough examination should include the following:

  • Landing and car doors and their interlocks;
  • Worm and other gearing;
  • Main drive system components;
  • Governors;
  • Safety gear;
  • Suspension ropes;
  • Suspension chains;
  • Overload detection devices;
  • Electrical devices (including earthing, earth bonding, safety devices, selection of
  • Fuses, etc);
  • Braking systems (including buffers and over speed devices); and
  • Hydraulics.

This list is not exhaustive. Further guidance can be found in the model rules framed by DGFASLI and adopted by various states in their State Factories Rules.

 

The lift should be regularly serviced by a reputable maintenance company (about every three months). The service report provided should relate to the efficient working of the lift and does not replace the thorough examination mentioned above. Any repair work identified should be done as soon as possible.

The safety steps given below will reduce the risk of accidents caused by or in lifts, and may be used as a safety checklist.

·         Make sure that the lift is thoroughly examined by a competent person (A competent person is a person who has been declared so by the chief Inspector of Factories) and carry out any repair work which may be needed.

·         Make sure that the lift is regularly serviced by a reputable company. The maintenance contract should include removing rubbish from the lift shaft as it may contribute to the risk of a fire.

·         Develop a system for rescuing people trapped in the lift. If it is going to be carried out by your own staff, you should provide training on this procedure. Written procedures should be displayed at conspicuous places.

·         Make sure that there is suitable lighting on all lift landings to reduce the risk of people tripping or falling. Make sure that there is emergency lighting in the lift, which will come on if the mains power fails.

·         Make sure that the door to the lift plant room is secured and locked to prevent unauthorized access. A notice explaining that access is restricted should be placed on the door. The key to the plant room and the lift landing doors should be kept in a secure place, controlled by a responsible person, and be available at all times. Make sure that unauthorised people cannot open the landing doors to the lift shaft unless the lift is level with the landing floor.

·         Inform all the people not to use the lifts during a fire evacuation by putting up warning notices at lift landings and around the building, and using the public address system, where available.

 

7.  EXAMINATION OF TRACTION WIRE ROPES:

 

 

Text Box:  Rope Lay length: Lay length of a wire rope is the distance along the axis of the rope through which a single strand completes one cycle in the rope.

Correct Method of measuring rope’s Lay Length

 
7.1 External Inspection. The external inspection criteria for general usage running rope is as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reduction of nominal rope diameter due to loss of core support or internal or external corrosion or wear of individual outside wires. The diameter shall be measured in a circumscribing circle in six or more places on the rope.

  1.  Number of broken outside wires and degree of distribution or concentration of broken wires

c.   Corroded, pitted, or broken wires at end connections

d.   Severe kinking, crushing, or distortion of rope structure

  1. Evidence of heat damage from any cause.

7.2 Internal Inspection:

 
A wire rope can be opened for internal inspection only when completely relaxed. Using care to avoid damaging the strands or core, open the wire rope in six or more places, by working a marlin spike beneath two strands. Carefully rotate the spike to expose the core and underside of the strands. Inspect for evidence of internal corrosion, broken wires, or core failure.  Particular attention should be given to the wire rope in areas close to end fittings, those lengths that pass over sheaves, onto drums, or that remain exposed to or immersed in seawater. If a wire rope has been opened properly and carefully, and internal condition does not show cause for removal, the strands can be returned to their original working positions without distorting the wire rope or impairing future usefulness. Only qualified personnel shall be authorized to inspect wire rope.


7.3 Reduction in rope diameter
:


Any marked reduction in rope diameter is a critical deterioration indicating factor. It is often due to excessive abrasion of the outside wires, loss of core support, internal or external corrosion, inner wire failure or loosening of rope lay. All new ropes stretch slightly and decrease in diameter after being used. This is normal but the rope must be replaced if the diameter if reduced by more than:

  • 1mm (3/64 in) of rope diameter of rope up to and including 19mm (3/4 in)
  • 1.5 mm(1/16in) of rope diameter of rope 22-28mm(7/8-1 1/8 in) 
  • 2mm (3/32 in) of rope diameter of rope 32-38mm (1 ¼ - 1 ½ in)
  • Wear of 1/3 the original diameter of outside individual wires, evidenced by flat spots on almost the full width of the individual wire, extending one lay length or more


7.4 Broken wires
:


Occasional premature wire failure may be found in the life of almost any rope and they should not constitute a basis for the rope replacement provided such wire failures are at well spaced intervals. The broken wire ends should be removed as soon as possible by repeatedly bending them backwards and forwards with the help of a set of pliers, by doing this the broken wires get tugged between the strands and may not  do further harm to the wire rope. The rope must be replaced if:

  1. The number of outer visible broken wires is more than 5% of the total wires in a length of 10-rope diameter.
  2. In running ropes, there are 6 or more randomly distributed broken wires in one lay length or 3 or more broken wires in any one strand in one lay length.
  3. In pendants or standing ropes, there are 3 or more broken wires in one rope lay.
  4. One or more broken wires near an attachment fitting such as sockets, are the result of fatigue stresses concentrated in these localized sections. The wire breaks of this type should be cause for the replacement of the rope or renewal of the attachment to eliminate the locally fatigued area.
  5. In running ropes, the wire brake in the valleys between the strands (near core) indicates an abnormal condition, possibly fatigued. More than one of these valley breaks in one lay length should be a reason for rope replacement.
  6. Other causes for rope replacement include, excessive rope stretch, corrosion, High stranding, Bird-caging, Kinks, Core protrusion etc.

 

 

 


                                                                                               

 

 

 

 

Bird-caging                                                                  Kinking                       

8.0 REFERENCES & FURTHER READINGS:

  1. The factories Act, 1948
  2. Model Rules By DGFASLI, Min. of Labour & Employment Govt.of India.
  3. Through Examination and testing of Lifts , Simple guidance for Lift owners ,Leaflet INDG339(rev1),revised 01/08 by  Health & Safety   Executive, U.K
  4. Guidelines on the Supplementary Tests of In-service Lifts  Safety Assessment Federation 2006. Available from the Safety Assessment Federation Ltd, Nutmeg House, 60 Gainsford Street, Butlers Wharf, London, SE1 2NY
  5. Safe use of lifting equipment: Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations1998: Approved Code of Practice and guidance L113 HSE Books 1998 ISBN 978 0 7176 1628 2
  6. Simple guide to the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 by HSE, U.K
  7. IS 3938 : 1983 Specification for Electric Wire Rope Hoists (Second Revision)
  8. IS 1860 : 1980 Code of practice for installation, operation and maintenance of electric passenger and goods lifts.
  9. IS 4666 : 1980 Electric passenger and goods lifts (First Revision)
  10. IS 6383 : 1971 Electric service lifts
  11. IS 2365 : 1963 Specification for steel wire suspension ropes for lifts and hoists
  12. IS 6620 : 1972 Code of Practice for Installation, Operation and Maintenance of Electric Service Lifts
  13. IS 14665 : Part 3 : Sec 1 and 2 : 2000 Electric Traction Lifts - Part 3 : Safety Rules - Section 1 : Passenger and Goods Lifts - Section 2 : Service Lifts
  14. Encyclopedia of occupational Health and Safety by ILO, Geneva, Switzerland.
  15. Lifting Tackle Manual by D.E. Dickie, Butterworths.


Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS

Occupier of every factory involving hazardous process is statutorily required under Section 41-B(1) of the Factories Act to disclose in a prescribed manner all the information regarding danger, including health hazards and the measures to overcome such hazards arising from the exposure to or handling of materials or substances in the manufacture, transportation, storage and other processes, to the workers employed in the factory, the Chief Inspector, the local authority within whose jurisdiction the factory is situated and the general public in the vicinity.

Model Rule No.82-C made under Section 41-B read with Section 112 of the Factories Act has specified that the occupier of any factory carrying out hazardous process shall arrange to obtain or develop information in the form of Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) in respect of hazardous substances or material handled in the manufacture, transportation and storage in the factory.

Every such MSDS sheet includes information on identification/labeling; hazardous ingredients, physical and chemical characteristics; potential fire, explosion and reactivity of the hazardous substances; health hazards involved; primary root of entry; permissible limits of exposure prescribed in the Second Schedule under Section 41-F of the Factories Act; precautions for safe handling and use of hazardous substances; emergency and first-aid procedures, date of preparation of MSDS as well as name, address and telephone number of the manufacturer, importer, occupier of other responsible party, preparing or distributing the MSDS.

This division provides MSDS on request to industries at a nominal payment, enquires can be made by writing to Director- In charge (MIS)

National Referral Diagnostic Centre (NRDC)

Occupational disease assume a significant dimension in any country and more particularly, in a developing nation like India.  There is a considerable prevalence of common disorders like lead poisoning, silicosis, asbestosis, pesticides poisoning, occupational hearing loss, etc. among the industrial workers.

While the emphasis on the prevention, early diagnosis and management of occupational diseases are well accepted as the proven strategy equally important is facilitating for confirming the cases of occupational diseases as these involve legal liabilities. In recognition of this need as well as in recognition of the fact that such referral facilities are scarce in our country, a NRDC has been established by DGFASLI in the Central Labour Institute.

Suspected cases of occupational diseases are referred to these centers by Factory Medical Officers, Medical Inspectors of Factories, Certifying Surgeons, Public hospitals, etc. for opinion. The cases are physically examined, subjected to investigations at the institute and report is given by co-relating with the occupational history before arriving at a confirmed diagnosis.